Periods of rain maintained or improved prospects for winter grains and oilseeds over much of the continent.
Across central and eastern Europe, a series of fast-moving disturbances produced widespread showers (5-30 mm) in Germany, Poland, and the northern Balkans.
Consequently, moisture reserves remained adequate to abundant for vegetative winter wheat and rapeseed following near- to above-normal precipitation over the past 60 days.
Despite the occasionally wet weather, temperatures 3 to 5°C above normal (up to 8°C above normal in southeastern Europe) continued to promote faster-than normal crop development.
Farther west, late-week rain improved prospects for reproductive winter grains in Spain (5- 20 mm) and boosted moisture supplies for vegetative wheat and rapeseed in France (10-40 mm, locally more).
The western storminess was accompanied by cooler weather (nighttime readings near or below 0°C), with wet snow reported in parts of Spain.
However, the cold did not have any impact on wheat, barley, or rapeseed.
Unsettled weather (5-25 mm) was also observed in southeastern England, sustaining favorable soil moisture for winter crops.
Dry conditions prevailed over the Mediterranean Coastal areas, promoting citrus harvesting and other seasonal fieldwork.