During November, cold conditions further stressed poorly established winter grains in the north, while winter wheat in key southern growing areas entered dormancy under mostly favourable conditions.
Autumn drought continued from Belarus and northern Ukraine into central Russia, with November precipitation totalling less than 50 percent of normal (locally less than 10 percent).
The lack of moisture coupled with an early onset of bitter cold (-20°C or lower) resulted in poorly established winter grains in more northerly growing areas.
In addition, a lack of snow cover may have resulted in some burn-back or winterkill during the coldest weather.
In contrast, despite a dry November, winter crops in southern growing areas were properly established due to plentiful autumn rainfall.
Therefore, winter wheat from southern Ukraine into southern portions of Russia entered dormancy under mostly favourable conditions and was better able to withstand the late-month bitter cold, despite a relatively shallow snowpack.