Cold, mostly dry weather prevailed in major winter wheat areas, though somewhat milder conditions returned to northern - and western-most parts of the region.
A strong area of high pressure maintained sunny skies and below-normal temperatures (1-4°C below normal) in southern Russia.
Nighttime readings dropped below -5°C in key southern wheat oblasts, with weekly average temperatures less than 5°C indicating winter wheat was approaching or entering dormancy in the Southern and North Caucasus Districts in Russia.
Rain and snow (1-20 mm, liquid equivalent) were mostly confined to the North Caucasus District, though a secondary area of precipitation in northern portions of the Southern District provided some moisture for winter crops beset by an unfavourably dry autumn.
Meanwhile, near- to above-normal temperatures in Moldova, Ukraine, Belarus, and northern Russia eased crop stress brought on by the abrupt early-November cold.